A thermometer is a tool to see the coolness or warmth of a substance room temperature or air pressure.

This page is on the tools of Earth science. These are the numbers of the 72 objectives that relate to Earth science:

1.2, 1.4, 2.3, 4.2, 4.4, 6.6, 8.2, 10.5, 11.3, 14.2, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7 and 16.8.

 Barometer - a barometer is a tool that detects the air pressure.

††††††† Satellites take images of the world or over a certain area to detect the weather and the weather foreast.


††††††††† A globe-spanning constellation of six satellites expected to improve weather forecasts, monitor climate change, and enhance space weather research will head into orbit on Fri. April 14, 2006. Barring delays, a Minotaur rocket is scheduled to launch the array at 5:10 p.m. Pacific time from Vandenberg Air Force Base on the central Calif. coast. The low-orbiting satellites will be the first to provide atmospheric data daily in real time over thousands of points on Earth for both research and operational weather forecasting. The satellites will measure the bending of radio signals from the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) as the signals pass through Earth's atmosphere.

Called COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) in the United States and FORMOSAT-3 in Taiwan, the $100 million satellite network is the product of an agreement between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States. The array is based on a system design provided by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR).

Temperature and water vapor profiles derived from the GPS data will help meteorologists observe, research, and forecast hurricanes, typhoons, and other storm patterns over the oceans and improve many areas of weather prediction. The stability, consistency, and accuracy of the measurements will provide critical new information to scientists quantifying long-term climate change trends, say atmospheric scientists.



††††††††† A storm is a violent disturbance in the atmosphere. Storms involve sudden changes in air pressure witch causes rapid air movements. Conditions that bring storms often cause other storms to come.

††††††††† If you think there is a tornado in your area a tornado watch will be announced. A tornado watch means that tornados are possible in your area. A tornado warning is when a tornado has been spotted or seen on radar. If you hear a tornado warning, donít sit around until you see the tornado. The safest place is in the basement of a well built building. If there is know basement move to the bottom floor. Tornados mostly occur in tornado alley when cold dry air and warm humid air meet.

††††††††† Between June and November is when hurricanes happen. A hurricane is a tropical storm that has winds higher than 116 kilometers per hour. A typical hurricane is 600 kilometers in radius. In the U.S. hurricanes are usually in the Gulf of Mexico. A hurricane starts over warm water as a low pressure or a tropical disturbance. Of a tropical disturbance grows as larger and stronger it becomes a tropical storm then if worse it will turn into a hurricane. Low pressure and high winds form a storm surge witch raises the sea level six meters. Meteorologists and scientists look out for hurricanes during the hurricane season with computers, radar and satellites. Pilots with fast and strong aircraft fly throw hurricanes and take pictures and videos.

††††††††† In the winter in the northern United States precipitation freezes in the air forming snow, sleet and freezing rain. Snow can only fall from the shy when itís zero degrees Celsius. Heavy snow can block roads. If the storm is really bad find shelter from the wind.

††††††††† †† Elected officials, emergency managers, law enforcement officers, and public works managers are faced with helping families and communities prepare for, respond to, and recover from hurricanes and other natural hazards. Fixing barrier islands, dunes, beaches and mashes can minimize damage from costal hazards. Evacuation strategies and transferring information to places about expected impacts and post event recovery are a good way of saving lives and money.

A anemometer is a gauge for recording the speed and direction of wind.††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††A psychrometer is An instrument that uses the difference in readings between two thermometers, one having a wet bulb and the other having a dry bulb, to measure the moisture content or relative humidity of air.

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